12 June 2020
In an era of drones, self-driving cars and 3D printing, biomedical research remains heavily rooted in methods of the past — namely, animal models and animal-derived tissues. This remains true even as the field of toxicology begins to shift from a near-total reliance on live animals toward human-based cell systems and other technologies.
In the context of the “3Rs” of replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use, in vitro methods are often assumed to be non-animal. But this is not necessarily so. In vitro cultures and associated modalities commonly use animals as a source of biological materials, even when relying primarily on human-derived cells and tissues. [Read more…]